INCIDENCE & HAEMATOBIOCHEMICAL CHANGES OF TOXOCARIOSIS IN PUPPIES AND ITS THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT

Sarmista Debbarma1 and N.R. Pradhan2
M.V.Sc. Student, Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine,Ethics & Jurisprudence, Veterinary College, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences, Kolkata. [Received: 02.11.2017; Accepted: 07.5.2018] {DOI 10.29005/IJCP.2018. 10.1.005-009}

The incidence and haematobiochemical changes of Toxocariosis in puppies have been studied along with efficacy of certain drugs. Stray pups were found more infected than the pet pups. TEC and Hb level declined when TLC level increased. Total serum protein and blood glucose values were found to decrease when AST and ALT values increased. Percent efficacy was found highest with Pyrantel embonate and Oxantel emobonate (95.29%) followed by Albendazole (92.98%) and Pyrantel pamoate (89.49%).
Keywords: Anaemia, Neuromuscular block, Parasitism, Percent efficacy.

Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most common cause of parasitic disease in dogs which causes severe deterioration of health. Other than Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis infection frequently occurs in them. The young pups suffer more & it develops some digestive, respiratory and nervous symptoms and even cause death in them. Therefore considering the importance of the disease in pups, this study has been undertaken.

Materials and Methods

For this study 110 puppies with poor health, aged between 1 to 6 months brought to the Dogward of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Veterinary College, West Bengal University of Animal & Fishery Sciences from different localities of Kolkata were selected. Their faecal samples were examined for adult worms or ova.
Out of 110 pups, 42 were found positive for ascariasis of which 24 nos. of pups irrespective of age, sex and breeds were randomly selected for further study. These pups were divided in 4 groups (Gr. 2, 3, 4 & 5) consisting of 6 in each. Gr. 2 puppies were kept as untreated control, while Gr.3 was treated with Pyrantel pamoate @50mg/kg b.wt. orally as single dose. Group 4 puppies were treated with Albendazole @ 50mg/kg b.wt. for 3 days orally while Gr. 5 puppies were treated with Alfanil tablet containing Praziquantel, Pyrantel embonate and Oxantel embonate @ 1 tab/10 kg b.wt. orally as single dose. The pups of Gr. 3, 4 and 5 were also treated with Liv 52 Pet @ 2-5ml twice daily orally for 10 days, Inj. Pepsid-C@ 0. 4 to 0.6ml I/M ly on alternate days along with Verol drops @ 10 to 20 drops twice daily orally for 10 days. Another 6 healthy puppies were kept as healthy control or Gr.1
The haematological and blood biochemical changes of these pups were studied on 0, 7th ,15th and 30th days of post treatment by different standard techniques. For determining the efficacy of the drugs, the faecal samples of 3 treated groups (Gr.3,4 &5) were examined for eggs per gram(EPG) of faeces on 0,3rd , 7th ,14th and 28th days as per Soulsby (1994) and the percent efficacy was calculated as follows.

Efficacy percent = EPG before treatment-EPG after treatment x100
                                       EPG before treatment

Results and Discussion

Out of 110 puppies, 42(38.18%) were found positive for Toxocara spp. infection and this findings corroborated with the
findings of Negrea (2005). Other than the transplacental infection, puppies are mostly infected from the mother’s faeces. The incidence was more in the stray pups (73.80%) than the pet pups (26.20%) since they are not dewormed regularly. Male pups (66.67%) were found more infected than the female pups (33.33%). Season wise incidence, highest incidence was noted in monsoon(64.29%), followed by summer (26.19%) and winter (9.52%) and it might be due to effect of rainfall in the translocation and acquisition of L 3 infective larvae in the environment as reported by Soulsby (1994) also.
In breedwise incidence, highest infection was noted in Non-descript pups (61.90%) followed by Cross-bred pups (21.44%), Spitz (9.52%) and Labrador, German shepherd and Golden Retriever with 2.38% each. The infected puppies showed marked weakness, mild to moderate anaemia, rough body coat, diarrhoea, vomition and pot bellied appearance. But after treatment in Gr. 3, 4 and 5, these symptoms gradually disappeared while in Gr.2, these symptoms were further
deteriorated.
The results of the haematological observations in different groups have been presented in Table-1.
The table shows that, the Hb levels of the infected pups of Gr. 2, 3 4 and 5 were significantly (P<0.01) lower than Gr.1 on 0 day and varied between 9.18±0.08 to 9.74±0.06 gm% and simulated with the observations of Chattha et al. (2009) in pups with toxocariosis which might be due to extensive tissue damage of the intestinal wall and blood sucking behaviour of the infective larvae of Toxocara spp. in puppies as also opined by Deger et al. (1997). But following treatment with Pyrantel pamoate in Gr.3, Albendazole in Gr.4 and Alfanil in Gr.5 along with the supportive therapy, the Hb levels improved gradually in the following observations, while in Gr.2, it showed further deterioration. However highest improvement was noted in Gr.5 puppies. The anthelmintics helped to reduce the parasitic load and ultimately helped to improve the Hb level. Besides, the supportive therapies given to these groups also stimulated the liver functions and helped to increase the plasma protein synthesis in the liver and ultimately helped to improve the Hb levels.
The TEC of the infected puppies of Gr.2,3,4 &5 also showed significant (P<0.01) declination on 0 day than Gr.1, but following treatment in Gr.3,4 & 5, the values improved markedly on 30 th day (Table-1).
The Total Leucocytic counts of the infected puppies (Gr.2,3,4&5) increased significantly (P<0.01) on 0 day (Table-1) than the healthy control puppies (Gr.1) indicating marked leucocytosis and are in conformity with Sharma et al. (2010) who also noted increased TLC with toxocariosis in pups. He opined, increased leucocytosis is due to secondary bacterial infections in the intestine and also remarked, this leucocytosis is due to neutrophilia due to cell mediated immune responses and phagocytic effects against Toxocara spp. infections. However, following treatment in Gr. 3, 4 &5, there was gradual decrease of TLC values.
The Table-1 also shows that there was significant (P<0.01) elevation of Neutrophil percentages in Gr.2, 3, 4 & 5 than the Gr. 1 puppies and simulated with the observations of Sharma et.al (2010) with toxocariosis. There was further increase of the values in Gr.2 puppies, while declinations were noted in Gr.3, 4 &5.

Table-1: Haematological changes in different groups of pups before and after treatment

Table-1: Haematological changes in different groups of pups before and after treatment

The blood biochemical changes in different groups of pups have been presented in Table-2. The table shows that there was significantly (P<0.01) low values of total serum protein on 0 day in Gr.2, 3 4 & 5 in comparison to the healthy control puppies of Gr.1.This findings are in conformity with Brar and Naurial (1993) with toxocariosis and it might be due to impaired absorption of nutrients from the intestine and poor intake of food. In Gr.2, there was further decrease of the values while in Gr.3, 4 & 5 the TSP values increased markedly at the end and best improvement was noted in Gr.5. These improvements were due to treatment with different anthelmintics which helped to eliminate the parasites, as well as the supportive therapies which stimulated the liver for the synthesis of plasma protein. The blood glucose values of the infected pups of Gr.2, 3, 4 & 5 was significantly (P<0.01) low on 0 day than the puppies of Gr.1 and in agreement to the observations of Brar and Naurial (1993) and it might be due to impaired absorption of nutrients in the intestine following Toxocara spp. infection. But with anthelmintics and other supportive therapies in Gr.3, 4 &5, the blood glucose levels increased significantly (P<0.01) at the end of the experiment when there was still further deterioration in Gr.2.

Table-2: Blood bio-chemical changes in different groups of pups before and after treatment

Table-2: Blood bio-chemical changes in different groups of pups before and after treatment

The serum bilirubin levels in Gr. 2, 3, 4 & 5 increased moderately on 0 day than the healthy pups of Gr.1 and in agreement with the findings of Mondal and Basak (2001) who also noted mild increase of bilirubin levels in pups with toxocariosis and opined Toxocara spp. infection produces hepatic insufficiency and increases the serum bilirubin levels. However following therapy with anthelmintics along with the liver tonics like Pepsid-C and Liv-52, the values gradually improved in different treated groups.
The mean values of AST in Gr.2, 3, 4 & 5 were significantly high (P<0.01) on 0 day in comparison to Gr.1 and simulated with the observations of Mondal and Basak(2001) who also recorded higher AST values in piglets with Toxocara spp. infection and it might be due to hepatic insufficiency. But following treatment in Gr.3, 4 and 5, the AST values declined significantly (P<0.01) and became almost normal at the end of the experiment.
Similarly the ALT values were also found significantly high (P<0.01) on 0 day in the infected groups (Gr.2, 3, 4 and 5) and confirmed the findings of Mondal and Basak (2001) in piglets with toxocariosis. However, in the treated groups (Gr.3, 4 & 5) the values almost became normal on 30 th day, while it still remained significantly (P<0.01) elevated in Gr.2.
The efficacies of different anthelmintics have been presented in Table-4. The table shows that, the overall efficacy of Pyrantal pamoate was 89.49%. Sharma et al. (2006) reported 80-100% efficacy using a combination of Pyrantel pamoate, Fenbendazole and Praziquantel against toxocariosis. Pyrantel pamoate causes neuromuscular block leading to paralysis of the parasite which are thus eliminated due to peristaltic movements. Group-4 puppies, which were treated with Albendazole showed over all percent efficacy of 92.98%. Similar efficacy ranging from 80-100% was also reported by Tiwari (1994) against Toxocara canis infection in dogs.

Table -3: Efficacy of different anthelmintics against Toxocara spp. infection of pups.

Table -3: Efficacy of different anthelmintics against Toxocara spp. infection of pups.

Group 5 puppies, who were treated with Pyrantel embonate, Oxantel embonate and Praziquantel showed 95.29% of percent efficacy. The Pyrantel and Oxantel are the depolariing neuromuscular blocking agents in nematode parasites and produces paralysis in them. Praziquantel initiates rapid muscular contraction by altering the ionic balance of muscle cell and causes spastic paralysis of the worms and are eliminated. Similarly reported by Sinha et al (2009) who used a product containing Pyrantel pamoate, Fenbendazolend Praziquantel against nematodiasis in dogs and found effiective.
Considering the clinical improvements, haematobiochemical changes and therapeutic efficacies, these drugs were found effective in treatment of Toxocara spp. infection in pups.

References:

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