Jai Prakash Kachhawa1, Ankita Sharma, Tanuj K. Tanwar, A.P. Singh2, D.K. Bihani2 and Anil Ahuja2
1Assistant Professor, 2Professor, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence; College of
Veterinary & Animal Science, RAJUVAS, Bikaner-334 001, (Rajasthan), India.
[Received: 18.1.2017; Accepted: 04.9.2017]
Canine oral papillomatosis is a benign neoplasm of oral mucosa caused by canine oral papillomavirus
(COPV). A ten month old female Rotweiler dog was presented to the Medicine clinic of TVCC of College of
Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner with a history of several growths in the mouth and difficulty in feeding. The
dog was treated with thuja (a homeopathic drug) for 21 days. Dog showed complete recovery within 21 days after
initiation of treatment.
Key words: Canine oral papilloma, Homeopathy, Thuja, Warts.
Canine oral papillomatosis is benign epithelial tumour caused by infection with species-specific DNA canine oral
papillomavirus (COPV) (Hnilica, 2011). The disease is contagious, may be transmitted by direct contact or via fomites. The incubation period varies between one and two months. Oral Papillomatosis affects the oral cavity and
lips of young dogs while cutaneous papillomatosis affacts older dogs (Sundberg et al., 1994). Lesions begin as smooth papules a few millimetres in diameter and progress to large pedunculated cauliflower-like masses up to 3 cm in diameter, rough, horny which when pigmented assumes a black colour (Kachhawa et al., 2015).
Case history and Observations
A 10 month old female Rotweiler dog was presented to the Medicine clinic of TVCC of College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner with a history of growths in the mouth for last fifteen days, salivation and feeling difficulty in swallowing. On clinical examination, rough, horny and brownish coloured oral papillomas were observed in
buccal cavity, hard palate, lateral commisure of the mouth and lips (Fig.1). The sizes of papillomas were varying from 1-6 millimetres. Although, dog showed inappetence due to difficulty in mastication as warts were present on hard palate and inner side of lips. The warts were present in bunches and continuous salivation was
present due to irritation of mucosa.
The dog was treated with a homeopathic medicine, thuja-200 @ 1.0 ml orally for three week and 2.0 ml diluted with
2.0 ml of distilled water subcutaneously weekly for a period of 3 weeks.
Results and Discussion
The regression started after 15 days of treatment and accomplished (Fig. 2) at 21 days of treatment. The canine oral
papillomatosis is highly transmissible and requires immediate management. The oral mucosa and commissures of lips are most frequently involved, but growths can involve palate, tongue and oropharynx. Canine oral
papillomatosis also affects other areas including nasal planum, eyelids, pharynx, epiglottis and cornea as also reported by Miller et al. (2013). Physical examination is usually sufficient due to typical lesions. Generally, clinical signs of canine oral papillomatosis appear in 1-4 weeks after infection and disappear within 6-12 weeks. Immunity plays an important role to determine development of papillomatosis in dogs as it occurs either in young or old dogs
for want of effective antibodies as also mentioned by Nwoha (2013).
Oral papillomatosis usually regress within three months. Oral lesions may be observed without treatment unless they are irritating the dog, interfering with eating and unattractive. In these types of cases, treatment comprises surgical removal, laser or cryotherapy of the lesions causing problems as also reported by Paterson (2008).
Kachhawa et al. (2015) also used thuja for the treatment of papillomatosis in horses effectively and administered orally and also applied locally on the skin. There are few scientific studies that also evaluate and successfully used thuja for the treatment of papillomatosis as reported by Veena et al. (2011).
Hnilica, K.A. (2013). Papillomas: In: Small Animal Dermatology-A Color atlas and Therapeutic Guide, 3rd edn., Elsevier: St. Louis, Missouri 63043, U.S.A. Pp.161- 162.
Kachhawa, J.P., Mudgal, N.K., Sharma, A., Singh A.P., Tanwar, R.K., Kachhawaha, S., and Srivastava, M. (2015). Cutaneaous papillomatosis in mares and response of homeopathic treament. Vet. Pract., 16 (1): 153-154.
Miller, W.H., Griffin, C.G. and Campbell, K.L. (2013). Papilloma: In: Muller and Kirk’s Small Animal Dermatology, 7th edn., Elsevier: St. Louis, Missouri 63043, U.S.A. Pp. 774- 778.
Nwoha, R.I.O. (2013). A case report on natural regression of oral papillomatosis in a dog. Intern. J. Micro. Res. and
Reviews, 4(1): 127-129.
Paterson, S. (2008). Papillomavirus: In: Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat, 2nd edn., Blackwell Publishing: Oxford, United Kingdom. Pp. 84-86.
Sundberg, J.P., Smith, E.K., Herron, A.J., Jenson, A.B., Burk, R.D. and Van Ranst, M. (1994). Involvement of canine oral papillomavirus in generalized oral and cutaneous verrucosis in a Chinese Shar Pei dog. Vet. Pathol., 31: 183-187.
Veena, P., Sankar, P. Suresh Kumar R.V., Dhanalakshmi, N., Sreelatha, C. and Kokila, S. (2011). Homeopathic treatment for oral papillomatosis in a dog. Indian J. Vet. Sur., 32(1): 75.