INCIDENCE OF UTERINE INERTIA IN BITCHES IN NAGPUR CITY

M.S. Bawaskar1, S.K. Sahatpure2, M.S. Patil, S.V. Upadhye, S.B. Akhare and D.V. Patil1
1Ph.D. Scholar, 2Associate Professor & Inchrge, Department of Animal Reproduction Gynaecology and Obstetrics;
Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharastra Animal Fishery Sciences University, Nagpur.
[Received: 29.3.2017; Accepted: 23.11.2017]
{DOI 10.29005/IJCP.2017.9.2.127-130}

The present study entitled incidence of uterine inertia in bitches of Nagpur city was conducted at TVCC,
Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur. The data for the present investigation was obtained from April 2013 to March
2016. A clinical study was conducted to analyze the incidence of foetal and maternal dystocia, influence of breed, age, size, parity and litter size of the dam on the occurrence of uterine inertia.
Key words: Fetal dystocia, Incidence, Maternal dystocia,

Dystocia is defined as the inability to expel fetuses through the birth canal and occurs in about 5 percent of all parturitions in dogs (Linde-Forsberg and Eneroth, 2000). The cause may be maternal or fetal. Maternal
dystocia is encountered more frequently than fetal. The most common form of maternal dystocia in bitches is uterine inertia which can be classified as complete or partial (Vanden Weijden and Taverne, 1994). Primary uterine inertia is the most common cause of (75%) dystocia in the bitches (Darvelid & Linde-Forsberg, 1994). Primary complete uterine inertia has been recognized as one of the principle cause of dystocia in bitch. The condition is characterized by the failure of uterine muscle to expel normal sized fetuses through birth canal which is normal, except perhaps for an incompletely dilated cervix and characterized by contraction which are either completely absent, weak or infrequent. In primary uterine inertia bitches fails to contract the abdominal muscle but the cervix
dilates and the placenta can’t detach from the uterine wall. The factors influencing dystocia are many. Factors like breed, parity, litter size, age play an important role. This paper aims to look into the influence of these
factors on dystocia in canines of Nagpur city.

Materials and Methods
The data of 547 bitches with reproductive disorders was collected from Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex,
Nagpur Veterinary College, Nagpur, for a period of 3 years from April 2013 to March 2016. Dystocia was broadly classified as of maternal and fetal origin. Dystocia was considered as of maternal origin when there
was absence of abnormalities of the vagina, absence of response to feathering reflex, Presence of greenish or blackish discharge  from the vagina for a variable period and absence of signs of first stage of labour. Dystocia was considered to be of fetal origin when there was straining without delivery of fetus, when examination of vagina revealed mal disposition of fetus. A diagnosis that dystocia due to partial primary uterine inertia was made, if the bitches started to deliver its puppies, but the labour ends prematurely, despite the presence of a patent birth canal
with a history and ultrasonic evidence of completion of pregnancy term, presence of signs of first stage of labour along with the presence of greenish or blackish-green lochia on the perineum, vulva or vestibule. In this study, influence of breed, size, age, parity and litter size of the dam on the incidence of dystocia in bitches were studied.

Results and Discussion Incidence of maternal and foetal causes of dystocia
Out of 184 bitches presented for dystocia treatment, 156 (84.78%) bitches were diagnosed as maternal in origin and the rest 28 (15.22%) as of foetal in origin. An occurrence of maternal dystocia was considerably more than the foetal dystocia.
Higher incidence of maternal causes of dystocia in bitches has also been reported by Narasimha murthy (2011). He reported that maternal dystocia observed in the bitch may be related to the prolonged duration of second
stage of labour, temperament of the bitch and managemental practices such as nutrition and exercise. The relatively low incidence of foetal dystocia in bitch has been attributed to insignificant importance of postural abnormalities of the foetal limbs.
Maternal causes of dystocia in bitches

In the present study, primary uterine inertia and secondary uterine inertia together accounted for 99.36% of maternal dystocia. Primary uterine inertia was 132 cases (84.62%) recorded as the main cause of maternal dystocia whereas secondary uterine inertia was ascertained with only 23 cases (14.74%) . Only one case of pelvic bone
abnormality was found resulting in to maternal dystocia.

Factors influencing uterine inertia in bitches
In the present findings, uterine inertia was observed to be the major cause of maternal dystocia therefore further data analysis was carried out to study the influence of breed, age, parity and litter size of the animal on the incidence of uterine inertia.

Breed and Size of dam
Breed was found to be one of the most important aspects causing higher prevalence of uterine inertia in bitches. The breed wise prevalence of uterine inertia in different breeds is presented in Table-2. Out of total 156 cases of maternal dystocia, highest prevalence of uterine inertia was recorded in Labrador bitches (49.36 %) followed by
German shepherd (19.23 %). From the above data, it appears that the incidence of uterine inertia was observed more frequently in large size breeds such as Labrador, German shepherd and Rottweiler which together
accounted for 60.37 % of total cases. Similarly Narasimhamurthy (2011) reported highest frequency of dystocia recorded in Labrador retriever (18.12%) followed by German Shepherd (12.00 %), Boxer (9.40%), Pug (9.06%) and Dachshund (8.40 %) and least in Basset Hound (1.30 %). In the present study out of 156 cases having uterine inertia
61.54% were recorded with body weight 25 to 45 kg which represents the larger sized breeds (Table-1). Medium and large size breeds together represented 88.46 per cent of total cases of uterine inertia recorded in the present study. Apparently, this observation suggests that medium and larger size breeds are more prone to uterine inertia.

Age of dam
Bitches of 2-4 years age were found to be more prone to uterine inertia (44.23 %) than older bitches which is evident from Table-1. Results of the present study collaborates with the findings of Darvelid and Linde-Forsberg (1994) who also reported a higher incidence of dystocia in bitches of age 2-4 years and 2-3.5 years age, respectively.
Contrary to the above observation, Freak (1975) reported that animals of age 5 years and above often of low fecundity with 3 or fewer fetuses were more prone to uterine inertia.

Parity
In the present investigation the frequency of occurrence of uterine inertia was more in primiparous animals than in
pluriparous animals which were 61.54 % and 38.46 %, respectively. It was also observed that the frequency of uterine inertia progressively decreased with increase in parity. A higher incidence of primary uterine
inertia in young bitches is probably due to anxiety, fear, excessive interference of the owner, or change in certain managemental practices such as shifting the dog to unaccustomed area for the purpose of delivery. Similar overall higher incidence of dystocia in primiparous bitches is also reported by Narasimhamurthy (2011).

Litter Size
Incidence of uterine inertia was 7.69 % in bitches with single litter, 31.41% in bitches with 2-4 litter size while it was 11.54 % in bitches with litter size of > 8. In the present study, bitches carrying 5-8 fetuses appeared to be more prone to uterine inertia with incidence of 49.36 per cent (Table-1).

In accordance to our report, Freak (1962) also reported low fecundity as the cause of complete primary uterine inertia. He suggested that low fecundity and its accompanying low hormonal influence appeared to result in simple and complete failure to initiate whelping. He also recorded incidence of uterine inertia in animal with
high fecundity and attributed the cause in such animals to more uterine distension. Simillar to our study Borge et. al. (2011) studied total of 10,810 litters of 224 breeds registered in the Norwegian Kennel Club for one year and reported that the overall mean litter size at birth was 5.4 (± 0.025) while mean litter size increased with
breed size, from 3.5 (± 0.04) puppies in miniature breeds to 7.1 (± 0.13) puppies in giant breeds and no effect on litter size was found for the season of birth or the parity of the bitch.
Results of the present study collaborates with the findings of Pawar (2013) who studied an influence of litter size
on the incidence of uterine inertia and reported that 38.68 per cent of the animals with uterine inertia were carrying 2-4 puppies while an incidence of uterine inertia was also comparatively higher (29.24%) in animals with a large litter size (>8).
In collaboration to our study Arthur et al. (1989) also observed that overstretching of the myometrium by an excessively large litter size, hydroallantois, toxic degeneration due to bacterial infection, fatty infiltration of
myometrium and senility as important cause of uterine inertia in dogs.
It may be concluded that the breed and its size, parity, age and litter size influence the incidence of dystocia in canines.

References
Arthur, G.H., Noakes, D.E. and Pearson, H. (1989). Dystocia and other disorders associated with parturition, Veterinary Reproduction and obstetrics, 6th edn., Bailliere Tindall, London, U.K. Pp. 182-230.

Borge, K.S., Tonnessen, R., Nodtvedt, A. and Indrebo, A. (2011). Litter size at birth in purebred dogs-A retrospective study of 224 breeds. Theriogenology,75: 911-919.

Darvelid, A.W. and Linde-Forsberg, C. (1994). Dystocia in the bitch: A retrospective study of 182 cases. J. Sm.
Anim.Pract., 35: 402-407.

Freak, M. J. (1962). Abnormal conditions associated with pregnancy and parturition in the bitch. Vet. Rec., 74: 1323-1339.

Freak, M. J. (1975). Practitioners- breeder’s approach to canine parturition. Vet. Rec., 96: 303-308.

Linde-Forsberg, C. and Eneroth, A. (2000). Abnormalities in pregnancy, parturition and the periparturient period, In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Ettinger SJ, Feldman. EC, 5th edn., Saunders Company, Philadelphia,
U.S.A. Pp.1527- 1539.

Narasimhamurthy (2011). Comparative evaluation of different methods of management of dystocia in dogs. Ph.D
Thesis. submitted to the Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, Bidar.

Pawar, R.D. (2013). Incidence of uterine inertia and treatment with two different protocols in bitches. M.V.Sc Thesis, submitted to the Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Sciences, University , Nagpur.

Van Der Weijden, B.C. and Taverne M.A.M. (1994). Aspects of obstetrics care in the dog.Vet. Q., 16: 20-22.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

RSS
Follow by Email
Facebook
Twitter
error: Content is protected !!