Subhashree Sarangi1, A.P.K. Mahapatra2 and A.K. Kundu3
1M.V.Sc. Student, 2Associate Professor, 3Professor, Department of Veterinary Physiology;
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry; Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha. [Received: 27.1.2017; Accepted: 05.9.2017]
Twenty Labrador retriever dogs (aged between 4 and 6 years with an average body weight of 31.6 ± 0.4 kg)
presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex were selected for the study. These were divided into two groups of ten individuals each with group-1 consisting of healthy individuals and group-2 constituting the dehydrating ones. Haemogram and serum biochemical tests were conducted and the results were analysed statistically. PCV and TEC were significantly higher (P<0.05) while a significantly lower haemoglobin, MCH and MCHC (P<0.05) were revealed in group-2. Significantly greater concentrations of total proteins, albumin and sodium (P<0.05) were also found in serum of the dehydrating ones. Early recognition of the problem gives the dog the best chance for a rapid and complete recovery.
Key words: Haemogram, Hypovolemia, Labrador Dog.
Hypovolemic shock is a type of circuit failure that occurs when there is a reduction in circulating blood volume due to plasma or free water loss. In the initial stages of hypovolemic failure the primary signs are those of interstitial fluid depletion and dehydration, with dry mucous membranes, sunken eyes and decreased skin turgor
(Radositis et al., 2007). Dehydration can be life-threatening when severe, it may lead to seizures or respiratory arrest. Treatment shall be easier when normal as well as conditionspecific reference values are available for
these parameters (Guzelbektes et al., 2007).
Materials and Methods
Twenty Labrador retriever dogs (aged between 4 and 6 years with an average body weight of 31.6 ± 0.4 kg) presented to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex were selected for the study. These were divided
into two groups of ten individuals each. Group-1 (control group) consisted of the healthy dogs that were presented for routine check-up. Group-2 constituted those with the history like inappetance, deficiency in fluid intake, reduced urination, vomitting and/or diarrhoea, and on clinical examination, revealed markedly sunken eyes and tenting of the skin with the skin fold test persisting for 6-8 seconds indicating 8-10%.
Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical analyses. The anticoagulantmixed blood was taken for estimation of haemoglobin concentration, total erythrocyte count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV)
by standard procedures. The absolute erythrocyte indices, namely, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean
corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated using appropriate formulae as below: MCV (in fL) = (PCV / TEC) X 10; MCH (in pg)= (Hb / TEC) X 10
and MCHC (in g%)= (Hb / PCV) X 100. The extracted serum was used for estimation of glucose, total proteins and albumin by colorimetry using commercially available kits. Sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated by emission flame photometry.
Results and Discussion
Haemogram and serum biochemical reference values in healthy and dehydrating Labrador retriever dogs are given in table-1. The value obtained for group-1 dogs were normal and inaccordance to those obtained by Matwichuk et al. (1999); for dogs before exercise. PCV and TEC were significantly
higher in group-2 dogs (P<0.05) which might be due to a decrease in blood volume as also recorded by Radositis et al. (2007). A significantly lower Hb level as well as MCH and MCHC indices suggested that the dehydrating dogs might be suffering from nutritional deficiency-induced anaemia as also reported by Reece et al. (2015).
Significantly greater concentrations of total proteins and albumin in group-2 dogs (P<0.05) confirmed hypovolemia while a significantly greater sodium concentration (P<0.05) in the same group was a compensatory mechanism induced by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system in response to reduced circulating volume as also mentioned by Reece et al. (2015).
Till date, there is a scarcity of published data to guide objective dehydration assessment in animals because an exact
measurement standard for degree of dehydration does not exist. Dehydration is almost always easier to prevent than it is to treat, and as it progresses from the mild to moderate and severe states, the animal’s ability to correct the problem on its own diminishes. Early recognition of the problem gives the dog the greatest chance for a rapid
and complete recovery.
Guzelbektes, H., Coskun, A. and Sen, I. (2007). Relationship between the degree of dehydration and the balance of acidbased changes in dehydrated calves with diarrhoea. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pulawy, 51: 83-87.
Matwichuk, C.L., Taylor, S.M., Shmon, C.L., Kass, P.H. and Shelton, G.D. (1999). Changes in rectal temperature and
haematologic, biochemical, blood gas, and acid base values in healthy Labrador Retrievers before and after strenuous exercise. Amer. J. Vet. Res., 60(1): 88-92.
Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W. and Constable, P.D. (2007). Veterinary Medicine. 10th edn., Elsevier,
Philadelphia, U.S.A. Pp. 73-101.
Reece, W.O., Erickson, H.H., Goff, J.P. and Uemura, E.E. (2015). Dukes’ Physiology of Domestic Animals. 13th edn., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, U.S.A. Pp. 103-551.