P. Sarkar1, S. Halder2, D. Mandal1 and M. Mondal3
1Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Gynaecology & Obstetrics, 2Department of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology, 3Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex; Faculty of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, W.B.U.A.F.S., Kolkata (W.B.). [Received: 13.3.2018; Accepted: 17.9.2018] {DOI 10.29005/IJCP.2018.10.2.134-136}

Ovarian neoplasia is uncommon in the dog with a very less incidence (1.0 to 1.4 %) reporting from all canine
neoplasms. The present communication represents a rare case of bilateral ovarian cystadenocarcinoma of a 10 years old Mongrel bitch. The affected bitch had a history of anorexia, bilateral abdominal distension with mild ascites and
secondary anestrus for about 18 months. Radiography revealed a huge mass inside the abdomen. Ultrasonographic
images confirmed a left large and right small ovarian neoplasm contained multiple anechoic cystic structures with
irregular margins. Ovariohysterectomy was performed under standard anaesthetic protocols and the bitch recovered uneventfully. Affected ovary had histopathological alterations like hyperchromatia, presence of huge number of mitotic figures with fibrous stroma which confirmed papillary ovarian cystadenocarcinoma.
Keywords: Mongrel bitch, Ovariohysterectomy, Ovarian Cystadenocarcinoma.

Recently ovarian neoplasm is not commonly found in dog with a reported incidence ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 % of all
canine neoplasms due to high incidence of ovarioectomy/ ovariohysterectomy (Saba and Lawrence, 2013). Older dogs are commonly affected than Youngers. There is an increased incidence of left ovary neoplasm while
bilateral involvement may occur with papillary adenoma or papillary adenocarcinoma (Neilsen, 1983 and Jergens
and Shaw, 1987). Ovarian adenocarcinoma commonly metastatize to the perineal lymphatics causing obstruction and subsequent ascites (Jergens and Shaw, 1987). Cystadenomas are composed of multiple thin walled cysts filled with transparent fluids (Herron, 1983). Ovarian tumors cause various disorders in the sexual cycles such as
anestrus, nymphomania, musculanization, hyperadrenocortism and alopecia (Yamini et al., 1997). The present communication reports the clinical manifestation, radiographic, ultrasonographical and pathomorphological studies along with its therapeutic and surgical management of bilateral papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a
Mongrel bitch.

Case History and Observation

A ten years old Mongrel bitch weighing 20 kg with the history of anorexia and bilateral abdominal distension was
presented to the Department of Veterinary Clinical Complex, WBUAFS, Kolkata. The owner reported that the bitch was in anestrus condition for about 1.5 years. The physical examination revealed that the patient was in
mild anaemic condition with normal rectal temperature (101.50 F). A hard mass was felt by abdominal palpation and apparently no discharge was found from the vagina. Haematology showed leucocytosis (15600/cu.
mm) with normochromic normocytic anemia characterised by reduced number of red blood cells (4.5 X 106 cu .mm). Biochemical profile depicted mild hypoproteinaemia (4.8 gm/dL), hypoglobunaemia (2.2 gm/dL),
hypoalbuminaemia (2.6 gm/dL) with normal kidney function (Creatinine-0.9 mg/dL; BUN-8.0 mg/dL). Abdominal radiography revealed the presence of an intensive homogenous shadow with round shape and indistinct borders, located caudal to the rib (Fig-1).
Real time B mode ultrasonography of whole abdomen was performed where liver, kidney and urinary bladder had normal size, shape and texture. But it showed an echogenic structure located cranial to the urinary bladder which filled with anechogenic cavities with irregular margins

After obtaining the owner’s consent, an exploratory was performed under standard anaesthetic protocol. A small amount of serosanguinous fluid was removed from peritoneal cavity. Both the ovarian masses identified where the left ovary had typical dimension and shape weighing 900 grams containing multiple superficial cystic structures (0.5-1.5 cm) (Fig 3). There was no other metastasis inside the peritoneal cavity. Finally ovariohysterectomy was performed.
Histopathological examination revealed hyperchromatia, huge numbers of mitotic figures along with plenty of fibrous stroma, moderate nuclear atypia with pleomorphism and stromal invasion (irregular/destructive
infiltration by small glands), (Fig.4 ).

Postoperative treatment included fluid therapy, analgesics, antibiotics, antacids and multivitamins. The status of the patient was monitored daily and after 11 days skin suture was removed. After complete recovery
chemotherapy was done with Vincristine sulphate @ 0.025mg/ kg body weight once weekly for three weeks after estimating blood profile.

The present communication described that ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma could grow without any obvious clinical manifestation except rapid abdominal swelling. Granulosa cell tumors make up most frequently in older dogs and are of the most common functional tumors which secreting estrogen, progesterone as well as α-
inhibin as also reported by Pluhar et al.
(1995), which could be related with the  anestrus condition of the patient. In the present study, the uterus is hardly
differentiated and visualized by USG because of the size of the tumor which corroborates the findings of previous workers Yotov et al. (2005). Rapid enlargement could be atributed as a sign of malignancy and it was confirmed
by histopathological findings of the specimen. Due to the inadequacy of alternative therapy (Radiotherapy, immunotherapy), exploratory ovariohysterectomy was performed followed by chemotherapy with vincristine sulphate to destroy the metastatic cells if any. Control radiography was recommended after the removal of tumor mass and upto 4 months from the surgery there was no report about metastasis.
Finally it can be concluded that ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the bitch could affect both ovaries and has a rapid growth of abdominal swelling without any apparent clinical manifestation and the treatment of choice would be chemotherapy after ovariohysterectomy.

Herron, M.A. (1983). Tumors of the canine genital system. J. American Anim. Hosp.
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Jergens, A.E. and Shaw, D.P. (1987). Compend. Continuing Edu., 9: 459-495.

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Pluhar, G.E., Memon, M.A. and Wheaton, L.G. (1995). Granulosa cell tumor in an ovariohysterectomized dog. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 207(8): 1063–1065.

Saba, S.F. and Lawrence, J.A. (2013). Tumours of the female reproductive system. In: Withrow, S.J., Vail, D.M.,
Page, R.L., editors. Withrow & MacEwen’s Small Animal Clinical Oncology, 5th edn., St. Louis, Elsevier,
Saunders, Missouri, U.S.A. Pp. 532–537.

Yamini, B., Van Den Brink, P.L. and Refsal, K.R. (1997). Ovarian steroid cell tumor resembling luteoma associated with hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s disease) in a dog. Vet. Pathol., 34: 57–60

Yotov, S., Simeonov, R., Dimitrov, F., Vassilev, N., Dimitrov, M. and Georgiev, P. (2005). Papillary ovarian cystadenocar -cinoma in a dog. J. South African Vet. Assoc., 76(1): 01-03.

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